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ACETO CORP filed this Form 10-K/A on 11/09/2017
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As you read this MD&A, refer to the accompanying consolidated statements of income, which present the results of our operations for the three years ended June 30, 2017. We analyze and explain the differences between periods in the specific line items of the consolidated statements of income.


Critical Accounting Estimates and Policies


This discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. In preparing these financial statements, we were required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We regularly evaluate our estimates including those related to allowances for bad debts, partnered products, inventories, goodwill and indefinite-life intangible assets, long-lived assets, environmental and other contingencies, income taxes, stock-based compensation and purchase price allocation. We base our estimates on various factors, including historical experience, advice from outside subject-matter experts, and various assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, which together form the basis for our making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Since June 30, 2017, there have been no significant changes to the assumptions and estimates related to those critical accounting estimates and policies.


We believe the following critical accounting policies affected our more significant judgments and estimates used in preparing these consolidated financial statements.


Revenue Recognition


We recognize revenue from sales of any product when it is shipped and title and risk of loss pass to the customer. We have no acceptance or other post-shipment obligations and we do not offer product warranties or services to our customers.


Sales are recorded net of estimated returns of damaged goods from customers, which historically have been immaterial, and sales incentives offered to customers. Sales incentives include volume incentive rebates. We record volume incentive rebates based on the underlying revenue transactions that result in progress by the customer in earning the rebate.


The Company has arrangements with various third parties, such as drug store chains and managed care organizations, establishing prices for its finished dosage form generics. While these arrangements are made between Aceto and its customers, the customers independently select a wholesaler from which they purchase the products. Alternatively, certain wholesalers may enter into agreements with the customers, with the Company’s concurrence, which establishes the pricing for certain products which the wholesalers provide. Upon each sale of finished dosage form generics, estimates of chargebacks, rebates, returns, government reimbursed rebates, sales discounts and other adjustments are made. These estimates are based on historical experience, future expectations, contractual arrangements with wholesalers and indirect customers, and other factors known to management at the time of accrual. These estimates are recorded as reductions to gross revenues, with corresponding adjustments either as a reduction of accounts receivable or as a liability for price concessions.


Under certain arrangements, Aceto will issue a credit (referred to as a “chargeback”) to the wholesaler for the difference between the invoice price to the wholesaler and the customer’s contract price. As sales to the large wholesale customers increase or decrease, the reserve for chargebacks will also generally increase or decrease. The provision for chargebacks varies in relation to changes in sales volume, product mix, pricing and the level of inventory at the wholesalers. The Company continually monitors the reserve for chargebacks and makes adjustments when management believes that expected chargebacks may differ from the actual chargeback reserve.


The Company estimates its provision for returns of finished dosage generics based on historical experience, product expiration dates, changes to business practices, credit terms and any extenuating circumstances known to management. While historical experience has allowed for reasonable estimations in the past, future returns may or may not follow historical trends. The Company continually monitors the reserve for returns and makes adjustments when management believes that actual product returns may differ from the established reserve. Generally, the reserve for returns increases as net sales increase.


Government rebate accruals are based on estimated payments due to governmental agencies for purchases made by third parties under various governmental programs. Other rebates are offered to the Company’s key chain drug store, distributor and wholesaler customers to promote customer loyalty and increase product sales. These rebate programs provide customers with credits upon attainment of pre-established volumes or attainment of net sales milestones for a specified period. Other promotional programs are incentive programs offered to the customers. The Company provides a provision for government reimbursed rebates and other rebates at the time of sale based on contracted rates and historical redemption rates. Assumptions used to establish the provision include level of customer inventories, contract sales mix and average contract pricing. Aceto regularly reviews the information related to these estimates and adjusts the provision accordingly.


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