|ACETO CORP filed this Form 10-K/A on 11/09/2017|
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Credits issued during a given period represent cash payments or credit memos issued to the Company’s customers as settlement for the related reserve. Management has the experience and access to relevant information that it believes is necessary to reasonably estimate the amounts of such deductions from gross revenues. The Company regularly reviews the information related to these estimates and adjusts its reserves accordingly, if and when actual experience differs from previous estimates.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
We maintain allowances for doubtful accounts relating to estimated losses resulting from customers being unable to make required payments. Allowances for doubtful accounts are based on historical experience and known factors regarding specific customers and the industries in which those customers operate. If the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in their ability to make payments being impaired, additional allowances would be required.
We have royalty agreements on certain products where third party pharmaceutical and agricultural protection companies market such products. We earn and collect royalty income based on percentages of net profits as defined in those agreements. Royalty income is included in net sales in our Consolidated Statements of Income.
The Company has various products that are subject to one of two types of collaborative arrangements with certain pharmaceutical companies. One type of arrangement relates to the Company’s finished dosage form generics business acting strictly as a distributor and purchasing products at arm’s length; in that type of arrangement, there is no profit sharing element. The second type of collaborative arrangement results in a profit sharing agreement between the Company and a developer and/or manufacturer of a finished dosage form generic drug. Both types of collaborative arrangements are conducted in the ordinary course of business. The nature and purpose of both of these arrangements is for the Company to act as a distributor of finished dose products to its customers. Under these arrangements, the Company maintains distribution rights with respect to specific drugs within the U.S. marketplace. Generally, the distribution rights are exclusive rights in the territory. In certain arrangements, the Company is required to maintain service level minimums including, but not limited to, market share and purchase levels, in order to preserve the exclusive rights. The Company’s accounting policy with respect to these collaborative arrangements calls for the Company to present the sales and associated costs on a gross basis, with the amounts of the shared profits earned by the partners on sales of these products, if applicable, included in cost of sales in the consolidated statements of income. The shared profits are settled on a quarterly basis. For each of the fiscal years 2017, 2016 and 2015, there was approximately $54,454, $41,036 and $51,352 respectively, of shared profits included in cost of sales, related to these types of collaborative arrangements. In the case of a collaborative arrangement where the Company solely acts as a distributor and purchases product at arm’s length, the costs of those purchases are included as a cost of sales similar to any other purchase arrangement.
Inventories, which consist principally of finished goods, are stated at the lower of cost (first-in first-out method) and net realizable value. We write down our inventories for estimated excess and obsolete goods by an amount equal to the difference between the carrying cost of the inventory and the estimated net realizable value based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions. A significant sudden increase in demand for our products could result in a short-term increase in the cost of inventory purchases, while a significant decrease in demand could result in an increase in the excess inventory quantities on-hand. Additionally, we may overestimate or underestimate the demand for our products which would result in our understating or overstating, respectively, the write-down required for excess and obsolete inventory. Although we make every effort to ensure the accuracy of our forecasts of future product demand, any significant unanticipated changes in demand could have a significant impact on the value of our inventory and reported operating results.
Goodwill and Other Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
Goodwill is calculated as the excess of the cost of purchased businesses over the value of their underlying net assets. Other indefinite-lived intangible assets principally consist of trademarks. Goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized.
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